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    Canada[ edit ] In Canada a person can informally call themselves whatever they want.

    In all provinces except Quebec[37] when someone gets married they can change their last name without legally changing their name by using their Marriage Certificate as verification of the name change. Except for OntarioBritish Columbia and New BrunswickCanadians must be 18 to change their names and have lived in the province they are changing it in for at least 3 months to a year, depending on province. People younger than the province's age of majority can change their names if they have their guardians' consent, are legally married, or have a common law marriage.

    A document such as a birth certificate must be submitted. A statement as to why the name is being changed is needed in most areas and the reason has to be serious. In Canada, a name cannot cause confusion, be used for misrepresentation or fraud and in most cases the name change is announced in newspapers. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message It is a common practice for ethnic Chinese residents of Hong Kong to adopt a western-style English name in addition to their transliterated Chinese name. As they often adopt western-style English names after being registered on the birth register, the fact that they want to include a western-style English name as part of their legal English name is regarded as a name change which usually requires a deed poll.

    However, the Immigration Department which is responsible for processing applications for name change allows applicants to submit such applications without deeds poll; anyone who has a phonetic English name only and wishes to include a western-style English name as part of his or her legal English name can apply to the Immigration Department without a deed poll.

    Only one application of this kind is allowed for each applicant; any application for subsequent change s must be made with a deed poll. Ireland[ edit ] In the Republic of Irelanda person earns their name by "use and repute". For most purposes it is enough to simply use the desired name and ask others to call you by that name. For some administrative purposes, such as changing a name on a driving licence or legally changing gendera deed of change of name must be registered with the Four Courts.

    Prior to Septemberthey changed their name by deed poll. Usually, a name change requires government approval and is only rarely granted, though legal name changes have become more common in some jurisdictions over the last years. The reason given for this system is usually the public interest in the unique identifiability of a person, e.

    This requires a Royal Decree French: Koninklijk besluit for last names, but only a Ministerial Decree for first names. The new name must not cause confusion or cause damage to the bearer or others. Examples of requests that are usually considered favorably: Salami, Naaktgeboren "born naked"and Clooten "sods of earth" in Middle Dutch, but "testicles" in modern Dutch for minor children following legal adoption or recognition of paternity [46] Brazil[ edit ] According to the Brazilian Civil Code and the Public Registries Act, the name registered after birth is definitive and immutable.

    However, there are some circumstances under which a name change is allowed: If an obvious writing error is made while registering the name of the child.

    If a person's name exposes them to ridicule and harms their everyday well-being. If a person is recognized publicly by another name, they can request a name change or addition, by providing as support three testimonials of the change in name.

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    If a person has undergone a sex change, recent jurisprudence has allowed name modifications in most such cases. India[ edit ] In India, the person concerned submits a name change request to an appropriate authority, with supporting documents. Subsequently, an application must be made to the Government Printing Press, which issues an Official Gazette Notification certifying the change of name.

    December Learn how and when to remove this template message Although it has always been relatively easy to change one's legal names in Norway, it used to require some kind of government approval. As late as local vicars was instructed to write both given Christian names as well as last names in the baptismal record. Earlier, only the given name of the child, birth date, baptismal date and sex was written down, together with the parents' names. It was not until the beginning of the 20th century however that the authorities demanded everybody adopt a family name surname.

    Until aboutthe government still required that a name change applicant apply to the government regional representative fylkesmann. The law has been replaced twice since then. Nowadays, the process is as easy as in common-law countries; the subject merely submits the names wanted providing that the surname chosen is not in use or is not used by fewer than persons to the local authorities for the purposes of election rosters and census counts; there is no application process anymore.

    Philippines[ edit ] RA amends Articles and of the Civil Code of the Philippineswhich prohibit the change of name or surname of a person, or any correction or change of entry in a civil register without a judicial order.

    The Supreme Court of the Philippines Justice Leonardo Quisumbing on September 12,allowed Cagandahan, 27, who has congenital adrenal hyperplasiato change his birth certificate name from Jennifer to Jeff, and his legal gender from female to male.

    The decision must be authorized by the Director of Civil Status, and requires a valid reason for changing the name, including long-term use of the new name in the Montreuil case cited below, the Quebec appeals court has considered five years' use to be a sufficient reasondifficulty of use due to spelling or pronunciation, or bearing a name that another person has made infamous.

    Only a judge may authorize a name change for a child for reasons of abandonment, deprivation of parental authority, or change in filiation such as adoption. This has occasionally led to controversy. A lawyer named Micheline Montreuil, a non-operative transgender woman, had to undergo a lengthy process to have her name legally changed. Initially, the director of civil status refused to permit the change on the grounds that a legal male could not bear a female name.

    According to Quebec law, Montreuil could not change her record of sex because this requires proof of a completed sex reassignment surgerywhich she has not had.

    On November 1,the provincial court of appeal ruled that nothing in the law prevented a person who was legally male from legally adopting a woman's name. Montreuil was initially prevented from changing her name despite this ruling on the grounds that she had not established general use, as normally required for a name change; the Quebec appeals court finally authorized the change on November 7, Some have used that loophole by temporarily moving to one of Canada's other provinces, which follow the more permissive common-law rules, in order to get the legal documents.

    South Africa[ edit ] South Africa, which uses a mixture of common law and civil Roman Dutch lawmostly uses common-law procedures with regard to name change. The personal information of all citizens and permanent residents is recorded on the Population Register, so any name changes must be registered.

    A person can change their forenames by submitting a form to the Department of Home Affairs. An individual's surname, or that of a family, may be changed by applying to the Department and providing a "good and sufficient reason" for the change.

    A married woman can change her surname to that of her husband or join her maiden name with her husband's surname, and a divorced woman may return to her previous surname, without applying or paying a fee; but she must notify the department so that the details in the Population Register can be changed. It is possible that, if challenged, these provisions might be held to be unconstitutional because they apply only to women. South Africa has officially recognized same sex marriages since and in doing so now allows one or both partners to change their surnames in the marriage register on the day of the marriage.

    A new passport and ID book can then be applied for with the new married surname as well. The surnames of minor children can also be changed under various circumstances involving the marriage, divorce or death of a parent, children born out of wedlock, and guardianship.

    When aliens apply for naturalization, they have the option of asking for their names to be changed upon the grants of citizenship with no additional fees. Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Legally permitted reasons to change one's given name are: Sincehaving the same name as one's parent, grandparent, or great-grandparent.

    Having special reasons, [59] which is limited to twice in one's lifetime, while the second given name change of this type may not be done before reaching adulthood. Religious name Adherents of various religions change their name upon conversion or confirmation. The name adopted may not have any legal status but will represent their adopted religious beliefs. Christianity[ edit ] It has been historical Christian practice to adopt a name on baptism or in some countries confirmation.

    Eastern Orthodox monastics are usually given the name of a prophet or a monastic saint. Hinduism[ edit ] There is no formal concept of conversion in Hinduism but converts to Hinduism are accepted, usually after a small ceremony called Shudhikaran purification. Individuals who attend a Shudhikaran ceremony to officially become Hindu may be optionally given a new Dharma religious name, which is usually based on Sanskrit or Indian name such as names based on Hindu deities.

    Islam[ edit ] Converts to Islamic faith may choose a new name; although it is not required, it may in some cases be preferable for personal reasons or because the name is of uncertain Islamicity e. On the other hand, converts may choose to keep their names, as did Dave Chappelle.

    Women do not normally take their husbands' surnames as their own. Their maiden name continues to be their surname even after marriage. Sometimes their husbands first name becomes their surname, similar to the case of surname chains indicating someone's chain of fathers. In Islamic tradition, there are two kinds of surname. The first kind comes from the father's first name, which means that the particular person is the child of. For example, a name such as ibn Abdullah means "son of Abdullah", or bint Abdullah means "daughter of Abdullah".

    Father descendant names can be chained, meaning that an individual can have the name of their father, followed by their paternal grandfather, followed by the father of that grandfather, to indicate a patrilineal lineage. The second kind is associated with clantribal or ethnic affiliation and is also solely dependant on the person's patrilineal line.

    In Islamic family law, the individual is required to keep the clan, tribal or ethnic affiliation of their father where it is known, whether the child be illegitimate, staying with their mother after divorce or adopted. The last name cannot be changed in such a way as to reflect a heritage that is not that of one's biological father. Judaism[ edit ] Jewish people in the Diaspora sometimes give their children two names: Converts to Judaism choose a Hebrew name.

    Sikhism[ edit ] Those in the Sikh faith adopt a new last name upon baptism into the Khalsa. Men adopt the last name Singhwhile women adopt the last name Kaur. The Sikhs adopted the name Singh in during the Birth of the Khalsa.
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    Site Search Visit us on: The area provides habitat for significant flora and fauna species, including wintering sites for nomadic and migratory birds and flying foxes and is also home to the Cibum Margil Swamp, a declared coastal wetland. Also highly significant to local indigenous people for thousands of years, it contains important Aboriginal mythological and burial sites and campsites.

    Old four wheel drive tracks parallel the beach, and informal sand tracks for people on foot, meander through the coastal heath, which comes alive in Spring with native birds and animals feasting from a myriad native shrubs, bushes and grasses, in bloom. The Arakwal Aboriginal people are the acknowledged custodians of the Byron Bay area and retain a strong role and interest in the maintenance, protection and management of Aboriginal cultural values.

    Day use picnic areas, shelter sheds and spectacular views are available at Bar Mountain, Blackbutts Lookout and Antarctic Beech Picnic areas. A large camping area is provided at Sheepstation Creek, with a smaller one at Forest Tops. Both areas provide non drinking water, shelter sheds, firewood and composting toilets. There are a variety of walks in the park, ranging from 50 metre strolls to 10 kilometre hikes, most starting from day picnic or camping areas. The park is home to paperbarks, bush pea, bush orchids, black sheoaks, roughbarked apple, red and yellow Christmas bells, swamp lily and brilliant flowering banksias.

    For the bird watcher, the three kilometre return walk at Salty Lagoon is worthwhile. Picnic facilities are provided at Broadwater Beach and at the Broadwater Lookout area, where a high vantage point offers an uninterrupted view over a mosaic of heathland communities reaching all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Entrance is via a sealed road from the Pacific Highway at Broadwater or Woodburn. The fishing is good too! Modern camping and caravan facilities, including hot showers and a kiosk, are available at Woody Head.

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    Bookings, especially during school holidays, are essential - ring 02 to secure a site. Elsewhere, 50 low key campsites are provided at the Black Rocks Rest Area in the centre of the park, just turn off south of Woodburn on the Pacific Highway.

    Gumma Garra picnic area, located adjacent to the fishing village of Evans Head, offer further opportunities for bushwalking, fishing or just spending a relaxing day with the family.

    Gazetted as a national park init is now the only rocky headland on the Gold Coast that is substantially in its natural state. It also contains interesting geological forms and is of important cultural heritage significance to the Kombumerri Aboriginal people. The park provides a popular recreational and educational venue for local and international visitors and is one of the most heavily visited parks in the region.

    Visitors may glimpse humpback whales breaching in coastal waters during winter and spring, see white-bellied sea-eagles riding the ridge updrafts, or watch birdwing butterflies feeding on rainforest nectars in mid-summer. Local marine habitats include a range of sandy beaches and rocky shores, rocky reefs, submerged pinnacles, coral communities, riverine estuaries, coastal creeks and lakes, and a variety of sandy seabed habitats.

    Marine life includes dolphins, seabirds, turtles, fish, seaweeds, and invertebrates such as sponges, corals and anemones. Threatened marine species that occur in the Cape Byron Marine Park include little terns, grey nurse sharks and sea turtles.

    Humpback whales travel through the park on their annual migration and Cape Byron is a prime site for whale-watching, while the surrounding shorelines are popular with walkers. Sites within the marine park that have been identified as particularly culturally significant to Indigenous people include Julian Rocks, Cocked Hat Rocks, Cape Byron and beaches around Broken Head.

    Cape Byron Marine Park extends from the Brunswick River to Lennox Head and from mean high water out to three nautical miles from the coast or islands. Visitors planning on fishing or harvesting should be familiar with the zoning plan. Swimming, surfing, scuba diving, snorkelling, SUP and kayaking especially in the sheltered reaches of the Brunswick River fishing and boating, are popular activities in the waters of the park.

    Camping is available at holiday parks adjoining the marine park and coastal nature reserves, while a variety of accommodation options are available in nearby coastal villages. Stroll through rainforest, wetland and eucalypt forest, where you can safely view native Queensland wildlife displayed in natural habitats, from boardwalks specially constructed for wheelchair and stroller access.

    Check out the full range of Things to Do at Fleay's. The park is open daily, with a cafe and small shop with souvenirs, educational toys and books. Hours are from 9.

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    The cafe is open from Access from Gold Coast and Pacific Highway. Pockets of World Heritage listed rainforest hug the steep slopes below Acacia Plateau and Mt Wilson, while a small grassy area beside Koreelah Creek provides a pleasant car based camping spot with BBQ, picnic and toilet facilities.

    You might be lucky enough to see the endangered double-eyed fig parrot or black -striped wallaby. The unsealed road is suitable for 2WD in dry weather. There are species of rainforest plants and 38 varieties of animals, many found only in this part of Australia. For the keen bushwalker, there is over kilometres of graded walking tracks trailswith easy access to many places of interest.

    Subtropical rainforest, magnificent views, waterfalls and colourful wildlife make this park one of the most popular in southern Queensland for day Extensive walking track systems lead to many points of interest. Green Mountains has a picnic area where you can meet the wildlife if you are patient.


    Bring fuel stoves only and enough petrol for your return journey. NPWS phone 07 from 1pm to 3. Binna Burra is located in the east of Lamington. Walking tracks weave through a diverse range of open forest and rainforest. Picnic facilities afford spectacular views of the coast and hinterland. Access via Beechmont from Nerang or Canungra. Visit the Binna Burra Information Centre. Q NPWS phone 13 74 The primary attraction is Mallanganee Lookout, which offers spectacular views over the Richmond Valley and to Mount Warning in the east.

    There are no facilities in the park. Comprised of mixed hardwood species with an unusual combination of Hoop pine and Ironbark, it was logged intensively for 30 years prior to its converting to national park in on January 1st The Cutters Camp campground is limited to 15 camping sites, and due to the unsealed access road and the camping area layout, it is suitable for tents, small camper trailers and small campervans only, not for full sized caravans or motor homes.

    A significant portion of the park is dry eucalypt forest, with some rainforest and a small section of old growth forest. A walking track of about metres leads from the campground to Byrrill Creek, meandering through a stand of ancient giant figs.

    The park ideally lends itself to leisurely strolls and bicycle riding along the unsealed through road. Just keep an eye out for 4WD and motorcycle riders. The unique qualities of this rugged area were recognised in and again in the s, when a number of the separate peaks in the area were declared national parks.

    These rugged peaks are the remains of the ancient Focal Peak Shield Volcano which erupted 24 million years ago. Mount Barney is the second highest peak in south-east Queensland. The park has extremely varied vegetation with open forests around the foothills of the peaks, subtropical rainforest above m and montane heath shrublands towards the summits.

    The summit of Mount Ballow is cool temperate rainforest, and on Mount Maroon it is mallee eucalypt shrublands. Many rare and unusual plant species grow in the park including the endangered Maroon wattle Acacia saxicola, the rare mallee ash Eucalyptus codonocarpa, Mount Barney bush pea Pultenaea whiteana and Eucalyptus michaeliana.

    Camping Car-based camping is not available in Mount Barney National Park but is permitted nearby at Mount May Reserve no facilities and at three privately run campgrounds just outside the park. The private campgrounds have toilets, showers and barbecues. Bigriggen and Flanagans reserves are closer to the Boonah - Rathdowney Road.

    Walk-in bush camping is permitted at several sites in the park. There are no facilities at any of these sites and there are limits subject to change on the number of people who may camp at each campsite. Campsites may be closed from time to time to allow for regeneration or during periods of high fire danger.

    To camp in the national park you will need to buy a camping permit well in advance; it is recommended that you book 6 to 8 weeks in advance for public holidays. To camp at all other locations in the national park it is essential to buy a camping permit 3 to 6 weeks in advance.

    Bush campers should expect rugged conditions with no facilities, and are requested to read and follow the guidelines for staying safe and for minimal impact bushwalking. Access is via Rathdowney in QLD. This park contains areas of unique coral lichen and a number of nationally listed rare and endangered plants, as well as a rich diversity of tree dwelling animal and bird species. A selection of walks ranging from easy - moderate, and moderate - hard, including the overnight Historic Nightcap Track, are also accessible from the Mount Nardi picnic area, reached via a sealed road from the colourful village of Nimbin.

    All picnic areas have electric BBQ's, picnic tables with shelters and toilets. Accessible only via The Channon, a must see for many visitors is the separate Terania Creek picnic area, which includes a short 1. Please note that swimming is not permitted in the pool below Protestors Falls, due to the negative impact of sunscreens and insect repellents on native inhabitants, including the endangered Fleay's Barred Frog.

    Rummery Park Campground You can camp or picnic in the rainforest at Rummery Park - a former logging camp, where there's easy access and you can enjoy some of the day walks, or go on a mountain bike ride. Rummery Park campground facilities include picnic tables, showers, toilets and shelters. It is very popular during school holidays, and with overnight bushwalkers trekking the Historic Nightcap track from Mount Nardi, about 18km to the west.

    Co-managed with the Githabul People, Richmond Range National Park and World Heritage listed Cambridge Plateau is renowed for the rare Richmond Range spotted gum and extensive old-growth forest supporting a huge variety of native fauna, including many rare and endangered species.

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    Please note; roads are closed in wet weather. Each with their own features and charms, access is a half hour drive from the Gold Coast or minutes via Murwillumbah and Chillingham.


    Waterfalls cascade over the spectacular cliffs in this section. Lookouts offer scenic views of mountains, canyons and coastline to the north, with "Best of All" lookout being the most spectacular, offering stunning views over the Tweed Valley and Mount Warning, to the south. Extensive walking tracks lead through open forest and rainforest. Picnic areas are available.

    Camping is available at "The Settlement", a camping area opened in Bookings are required via the website or phone 13 74 Water and time have formed this unusual geological feature in the dense rainforest.

    Day picnic facilities, with coin operated electric BBQ's and public toilets are available, but no camping is permitted. Access is via the Nerang-Murwillumbah Road. A circular walking track leads you through the rainforest and along a creek bank. Don't miss the opportunity to explore the "Natural Bridge" formation, where a waterfall plunges through the roof of a cave into a beautiful sun-dappled rainforest grotto, which is home to glow-worms, bats and other denizens of the dark.

    You can enjoy the natural delights of the cave by allowing yourself 5 to 10 minutes of quietly standing, as your eyes and ears adjust to the surroundings, and you become aware of the sights, sounds and scents, which are around you.
    Ravenswood was once a thriving gold mining town. Today it is a beautifully preserved, virtual ghost town with a couple of pubs, a general store and some small businesses.

    Ravenswood is worth exploring. The mullock heaps, the old shafts, the chimneys, the rusting machineray and the historic buildings make it an informative journey into a once-thriving and booming gold mining town.

    It is 88 km east of Charters Towers. One of the new properties was "Ravenswood" which was almost certainly named after Lord Ravenswood, a character popularised by the novelist Sir Walter Scott in his novel The Bride of Lammermoor. Things to See and Do How to see the town There is a good information area just beyond the Miners Cottage and near London Mine which will help but the best way to see the town is to park and walk.

    Erica Finlay Plan your trip and ring ahead. It is worth the effort. Ravenswood has a number of heritage-listed sites. The information below is a good starting point.

    This is a special town and it is worth exploring in detail: From there it is a pleasant walk through the town past: Mabel Mill Mabel Mill is a heritage-listed ruin of a stamper battery and chimney just off Railway Street at the entrance to the town.

    Located on the northern side of Elphinstone Creek, is known to have been established byby which time there were five mills on the Ravenswood Gold Field with a total of 52 stamper batteries for crushing. The gold extraction technology used at this time was amalgamation. It involved washing the crushed ore over copper plates coated with mercury which amalgamated with the gold, scraping the amalgam off the plates, and removing the mercury to leave the gold. There is a very extensive article on the mill at https: Railway Hotel As you enter the town the Railway Hotel is the first indication of the prosperity of the area in its golden era.

    Built in it is a large brick hotel which was located opposite the Ravenswood railway station. It is set on a sloping site which drops down to Elphinstone Creek at the rear. It has three storeys, only two of which can be seen from street level.

    The "basement" storey, visible from the side and rear, is set on brick piers. The roof is clad with corrugated iron and is concealed by a rendered brick parapet. The building is constructed of exposed red bricks laid in English bond and is U-shaped in plan with accommodation on the top floor and the bar, kitchens and dining room at street level.

    On the "basement" level are large rooms used for storage and accommodation for the manager's family. The street elevation has a two storey veranda which is supported by paired posts with fretted timber brackets and dowel balustrades on the first floor and wrought iron valances with arched openings at street level.

    At the side the veranda has dowel balustrading to both levels. French doors open from the rooms onto the verandas at the side and there are sash windows at the front.

    Internally, the building retains substantial amounts of original fabric including pressed metal ceilings, and some of the original furniture and fittings. For more information check out the Queensland Heritage Register entry at https: London North Mine The remains of the London North Mine built between and bounded by Elphinstone Street to the northeast, London Street to the northwest and Macrossan Street to the southeast, consist of a headframe with mullock heaps to the north and south and an engine base to the west.

    The structure has cross bracing to each side at the top, with some remains of cross bracing at mid level. The northern mullock heap is supported by the remains of "pigsties" that were used extensively by miners for support of shafts underground and to shore up larger underground openings.

    The "pigsty" system provided a frame of timber logs that when packed with mullock could provide considerable structural stability. The engine foundations, consisting of a concrete slab with its holding down bolts, is all that survives of the boiler house and engines.

    This is located across a small dry watercourse that possibly was of assistance for de-watering the shaft. Macrossan Street and Raven Street: Ravenswood Court House and Police Station Located on the hill above Macrossan Street, the Court House and Police Station are the central elements of the town's museum which features displays relating to the town's history, people and mining history.

    It is open Monday to Friday The complex consists of three buildings erected on the site in - the Court House, Police Station, and Cells formerly part of the Police Stationall of which were removed from the site in and subsequently returned during the s. The court house is a single-storeyed timber building with a corrugated iron gable roof and concrete stumps. The building has a T-shaped plan, with the court room forming the south west wing surrounded on three sides by verandas, and offices form the north east wing with a veranda on the northeast side.

    The building has weatherboard cladding to the exposed gable ends, and single-skin exposed framing to the veranda walls. Verandas have a timber rail balustrade, with timber posts and capitals. French doors open to north east veranda, with the south west wing having sash windows and a central projecting gabled entrance porch with finial. The south west gable has a finial and paired timber brackets, and the exposed gable ends have a casement window with timber and iron hood.

    Internally, the building contains early court room furniture and fittings including timber gallery seating, witness stand, dock, and Judge's bench, with horizontal timber boarding to walls and a raked ceiling. The barracks, located to the north of the court house, is a single-storeyed, single-skin timber building with a corrugated iron gable roof and concrete stumps.

    The building has a veranda on the south east, the wall of which is clad with fibrous cement sheeting, with two french doors and a sash window and timber door. The exposed walls have weatherboard cladding, with glass louvred windows on the north west, and a sash window with metal hood on the northeast. The southern corner has had some cladding and part of the veranda removed. Internally, the building has three rooms, the northern one being lined with horizontal boarding, and boarded ceilings.

    The cell block, located to the north east of the court house, and to the west of the barracks, is a single-storeyed, single-skin timber building with a corrugated iron hipped roof and concrete stumps. The building has a veranda on the south east, with four doors and a window. The exposed walls have weatherboard cladding, with glass louvred windows, a casement window and a door on the northwest, a glass louvred window on the southwest, and a sash window on the northeast.

    Internally, the building has four rooms, some of which are lined and have boarded ceilings. Timber cell doors with original hardware have been removed, but remain on the site.

    This has been abridged from the long and detailed entry in the Queensland Heritage Register. For more information check out https: The Post office is a single storey timber building with an exposed stud frame, set on low stumps. It has a hipped, corrugated iron roof and is surrounded on three sides with verandas supported on paired timber posts.

    The verandas have diagonal timber balustrading and a cast iron valance. The front veranda and entrance to the Post Office and store are reached by steps up to a classically inspired central entrance formed of a triangular timber pediment supported by square timber pillars.

    Then walk across the bridge to the small collection of buildings on the other side of Elphinstone Creek which includes: It has a pitched roof clad with corrugated iron and concealed by an ornate rendered parapet This has a raised section in the centre topped with an urn within a hollow arch, echoing the central arch motif on the Imperial Hotel and Browne's Buildings opposite.

    It is flanked by urns at each end of the parapet, although one of these has been lost. An awning supported by plain timber posts shades footpath at the front of the store and is decorated by a sawn timber valance.

    Look carefully because it really is a very clever way to put two shops into a single building. It housed businesses which supplied miners with everything from household goods to mining machinery and is the only two storey shop still standing in Ravenswood. The building is a two storey rendered brick building with a corrugated iron skillion roof falling to the rear which is concealed by a parapet bearing the name Thorp's Buildings in raised letters.

    It consists of two shops at ground level with professional offices above. The front of the building has verandas to both floors, supported by paired timber posts with cast iron lace brackets and valance and cast iron panels on the upper floor. The upper floor has four sets of French doors opening on to the veranda. A central entrance with iron gates leads to a passage and stairs to the first floor.

    There are shop entrances on either side of this entrance with recessed timber doors and timber framed plate glass display windows. The interior of the shops are relatively intact, including the pressed metal ceilings and wall cladding.

    The building has its own gas producer and still has gas piping and fittings. Constructed in for James Delaney and run by members of this family for most of the twentieth century, it is evidence of Ravenswood's prosperity during its boom period.

    It is a symmetrical two storey building with a U-shaped plan constructed of exposed red brick laid in English bond and decorated with horizontal bands of cream brick at the front. The corrugated iron roof is concealed by a high parapet with a central arched pediment and six flanking spires. The veranda to the street has a corrugated iron roof and is supported by paired posts with fretted timber brackets to the upper storey and a timber valance with arched openings on the ground floor. The upper veranda has panels of cast iron balustrading.

    The veranda on the side elevation is not connected to this and is to the upper floor only. It has dowel balustrading. There are two front entrances, one to the bar and one to the central hallway. On the upper floor French windows open out from bedrooms on to the verandas. The building retains almost all of its original fabric and the interior layout is typical of nineteenth century hotels. It is exceptionally intact down to furniture, fittings and minor items of hotel equipment.

    The ground floor contains the bars, dining room and furniture and fittings, a billiard room and table, kitchen, store rooms and office. Features include an elaborately constructed and decorated bar with cedar and glass fittings, beer engines and ceramic taps. A narrow, open courtyard extends between the two wings of the building with ground floor toilets at the rear of the kitchen wing. Bedrooms are located on the first floor along with bathroom and toilet facilities.

    Upstairs the building contains much of its original furniture and fittings. The shop is a modest single storey, timber framed building set on low stumps. It is rectangular in plan and with its long axis at right angles to the street. The gabled roof and outside walls are sheeted with corrugated galvanised iron. The shopfront is clad with sawn boards and shaded by a corrugated iron skillion awning supported by plain timber posts over the footpath.

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