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    In historical times, around BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribethe Bituriges Vivisciwho named the town Burdigala, probably of Aquitanian origin.

    The name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. The Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinuswas killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around 60 BC, its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead towards Rome.

    Later it became capital of Roman Aquitaineflourishing especially during the Severan dynasty 3rd century. In it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals inthe Visigoths in and the Franks inbeginning a period of obscurity for the city. In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franksbut royal Frankish power was never strong.

    The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Arounda certain Gallactorius is cited as count of Bordeaux and fighting the Basques. The city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in after storming the fortified city and overwhelming the Aquitanian garrison.

    Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux, eventually taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne, described as taking a heavy death toll.

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    After Duke Eudes's defeat, the Aquitanian duke could still save part of its troops and keep his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. Inthe Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but it was not retained for long. The following year, the Frankish commander descended again over Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates.

    InAquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles' sons Pepin and Carloman against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps or duke strong in Bordeaux.

    Hunald was defeated, and his son Waifer replaced him, who in turn confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city along with Bourges in the north. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine —it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short 's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac Frontiacus, Franciacus on a hill across the border with the Basques Wasconeswhere Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him InSeguin or Sihimin was appointed count of Bordeaux, probably undermining the power of the Duke Lupoand possibly leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that very year.

    InSeguin was made Duke of Vasconiabut he was deposed in for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingianssometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia. They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c.

    No bishops were mentioned during the whole 8th century and part of the 9th in Bordeaux. The city flourished, primarily due to the wine trade, and the cathedral of St. It was also the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince —but in the end, after the Battle of Castillonit was annexed by France which extended its territory. InBordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine.

    Many downtown buildings about 5,including those on the quays, are from this period. Victor Hugo found the town so beautiful he once said: Baron Haussmanna long-time prefect of Bordeaux, used Bordeaux's 18th-century large-scale rebuilding as a model when he was asked by Emperor Napoleon III to transform a then still quasi-medieval Paris into a "modern" capital that would make France proud.

    Intowards the end of the Peninsula warthe Duke of Wellington sent William Beresford with two divisions, who seized Bordeaux without much resistance on 12 March. Bordeaux was largely anti- Bonapartist and had a majority that supported the Bourbonsso the British troops were treated as liberators.

    Inat the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war against Prussiathe French government temporarily relocated to Bordeaux from Paris. This happened again during the First World War and again very briefly during the Second World Warwhen it became clear that Paris would soon fall into German hands.

    However, on the last of these occasions the French capital was soon moved again to Vichy. In May and JuneBordeaux was the site of the life-saving actions of the Portuguese consul-general, Aristides de Sousa Mendeswho illegally granted thousands of Portuguese visas, which were needed to pass the Spanish border, to refugees fleeing the German Occupation.

    Italian submarines participated in the Battle of the Atlantic from this base, which was also a major base for German U-boats as headquarters of 12th U-boat Flotilla. The massive, reinforced concrete U-boat pens have proved impractical to demolish and are now partly used as a cultural center for exhibitions. Geography[ edit ] Bordeaux is located close to the European Atlantic coast, in the southwest of France and in the north of the Aquitaine region.

    The city is built on a bend of the river Garonneand is divided into two parts: Historically the left bank is more developed because when flowing outside the bend, the water makes a furrow of the required depth to allow the passing of merchant ships, which used to offload on this side of the river.

    But, today, the right bank is developing, including new urban projects. In Bordeaux, the Garonne River is accessible to ocean liners. The right bank of the Garonne is a low-lying, often marshy plain. Moderate summer rainfall prevents its climate from being classified as Mediterranean. Winters are cool because of the prevalence of westerly winds from the Atlantic.

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    The average seasonal winter temperature is 7. Frosts in the winter are commonplace, occurring several times during a winter, but snowfall is very rare, occurring only once every three years. The average summer seasonal temperature is The summer of set a record with an average temperature of
    One path of wine history could follow the developments and science of grape growing and wine production; another might separately trace the spread of wine commerce through civilization, but there would be many crossovers and detours between them.

    However the time line is followed, clearly wine and history have greatly influenced one another. Fossil vines, million-years-old, are the earliest scientific evidence of grapes.

    The earliest written account of viniculture is in the Old Testament of the Bible which tells us that Noah planted a vineyard and made wine. As cultivated fermentable crops, honey and grain are older than grapes, although neither mead nor beer has had anywhere near the social impact of wine over recorded time. This Princess, having lost favor with the King, attempted to poison herself by eating some table grapes that had "spoiled" in a jar.

    She became intoxicated and giddy and fell asleep. When she awoke, she found the stresses that had made her life intolerable had dispersed. Returning to the source of her relief, her subsequent conduct changed so remarkably that she regained the King's favor.

    He shared his daughter's discovery with his court and decreed an increase in the production of "spoiled" grapes The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology has a web site covering the Origins and Ancient History of Wine with several very interesting and user-friendly articles about the discovery and science of wine's social origin and development.

    Certainly wine, as a natural phase of grape spoilage, was "discovered" by accident, unlike beer and bread, which are human inventions. It is established that wine drinking had started by about BC and possibly as early as BC.

    The first efforts at grape cultivation can be traced to the area that forms the "Fertile Crescent", around the Caspian Sea and in Mesopotamia, including portions of present-day Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, and Turkey. Excavations from tombs in ancient Egypt prove that wine was in use there by BC. Priests and royalty enjoyed wine, while beer was drunk by the workers.

    The Egyptians recognized differences in wine quality and developed the first arbors and pruning methods. Archeologists have uncovered many sites with sunken jars, so the effects of temperature on stored wine were probably known. Homer's Odyssey and Iliad both contain excellent and detailed descriptions of wine. Wine was an important article of Greek commerce and Greek doctors, including Hippocrates, were among the first to prescribe it.

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    The Greeks also learned to add herbs and spices to mask spoilage. The foundation and strength of viniculture in Western Europe are primarily due, however, to the influence of the Romans. Starting about BC, the Romans made major contributions in classifying grape varieties and colors, observing and charting ripening characteristics, identifying diseases and recognizing soil-type preferences. They became skilled at pruning and increasing yields through irrigation and fertilization techniques.

    The bottle dates from approximately A. The greenish-yellow glass amphora has handles formed in the shape of dolphins. One of several bottles discovered, it is the only one with the contents still preserved. The ancient liquid has much silty sediment. About two-thirds of the contents are a thicker, hazy mixture. This is most probably olive oil, which the Romans commonly used to "float" atop wine to preserve it from oxidation.

    Cork closures, although known to exist at the time, were quite uncommon. Their oil method of preservation was apparently effective enough to keep the wine from evaporation up to modern day. The bottle is on permanent display, along with other wine antiquities, at the Historisches Museum der Pfalz History Museum of the Pfalzworth a visit if traveling near the area of Speyer, Germany. The Romans also adapted wooden cooperage, an invention they acquired with the spoils of conquering Germanic tribes, to wine storage and transportation.

    This was a great advance for operations previously accomplished in skins or clay jars amphora. They may also have been the first to use glass bottles, as glassblowing became more common during this era. Beginning about BC, Roman exploits were as significant as Roman experiments as the armies of Rome planted wine vines in the wake of their conquests, all over the land mass now known as Europe.

    It wasn't long before these regions began developing their own vineyards and the Roman Emperor forbid the import of French wines to eliminate competition with the local wines. Over the next few centuries, France would become dominant on the world wine market. Monastic wineries were responsible for establishing vineyards in Burgundy, Champagne and the Rhine Valley.

    Sacramental usage preserved wine industry methods and traditions through the dark ages. The end of the Hundred Years War in left the city of Calais as the only French territory still under British control and trade between England and France nearly cut off.

    Political conflicts between England and France ultimately benefitted competition in the export wine market. From untiltariffs restricted French wine imports and encouraged those from Portugal, so the English "discovered" and developed a great love of Port.

    Exploration, conquest and settlement brought wine to Mexico, Argentina and South Africa in the s and s. Although there were many attempts during this period to plant European wine vines along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America and in the Mississippi River basin valleys, none were successful.

    Each vineyard planted would die off within two or three seasons. No one apparently sought to determine why, even though little difficulty was encountered in Mexico or California vineyards.

    In the late s, one answer to this mystery would ultimately prove fatal for nearly all the vineyards of Europe. The success was such that the King of Spain forbid new plantings or vineyard replacements in Mexico afterfearing his colony would become self-sufficient in wine. This edict was enforced for years, effectively preventing a commercial wine industry from forming.

    As in Europe, however, vineyards survived under the auspices of the church and the care of the missions. Father Serra continued to establish eight more missions and vineyards until his death in and has been called the "Father of California Wine". The variety he planted, presumably descended from the original Mexican plantings, became known as the Mission grape and dominated California wine production until about In the s and '60s, the colorful Agoston Harazsthy, a Hungarian soldier, merchant and promoter, made several trips to import cuttings from of the greatest European vineyards to California.

    Some of this endeavor was at his personal expense and some through grants from the state. Overall, he introduced about different grape varieties, although some were lost prior to testing, due to difficulties in preserving and handling. Considered the Founder of the California Wine Industry, Harazsthy contributed his enthusiasm and optimism for the future of wine, along with considerable personal effort and risk.

    He founded Buena Vista winery and promoted vine planting over much of Northern California. He dug extensive caves for cellaring, promoted hillside planting, fostered the idea of non-irrigated vineyards and suggested Redwood for casks when oak supplies ran low.

    French chemist Louis Pasteur, among many discoveries relating to his germ theory of diseases, first proposed and proved, inthat wine is made by microscopic organisms, yeasts.

    This led to the discovery and development of different yeast types and properties and ultimately to better hygiene, less spoilage, and greater efficiency in wine production.

    Chauvet vineyard and winery, circa Joshua Chauvet planted his own vineyard in Agoston Harazsthy had employed him at one time. Chauvet also started the first brickyard, the first lumber mill. Hotel Chauvet in tiny Glen Ellen still exists today. Photo courtesy of Fleet Irvine Photomurals InDr Jules Guyot, another Frenchman, published the first of three treatises describing regional traditional vinicultural and viticultural practices as well as his own observations and arguments on the economy of grape growing.

    Before these documents, viniculture was a practice that had been apprenticed from generation to generation for over years, with very few written records and no formal instruction. These cuttings carried a species of root louse called phylloxera vastatrix which attacks and feeds on the vine roots and leaves.

    Phylloxera is indigenous to the Mississippi River Valley and was unknown outside North America at the time. Powdery mildew, a fungal disease, also indigenous to North America, had previously migrated to Europe and caused problems in some areas. No one, however, had any idea of the wide-reaching destructive potential of Phylloxera.

    Native American varieties developed resistance to phylloxera by evolving a thick and tough root bark, so that they were relatively immune to damage.

    The vinifera vines had no such evolutionary protection and phylloxera ate away at their roots, causing them to rot and the plant to die and driving the pests to seek other nearby live hosts, spreading inexorably through entire vineyards and on to others.

    Byphylloxera had spread to vines in Provence. Over the next 20 years, it inhabited and decimated nearly all the vineyards of Europe. Many methods were attempted to eradicate phylloxera: Finally Thomas Munson, a horticulturist from Dennison, Texas, realized that native American vines were resistant and suggested grafting the vinifera vines onto riparia hybrid rootstocks. So, there began a long, laborious process of grafting every wine vine in Europe over to American rootstocks.

    It was only in this manner that the European wine industry could be retrieved from extinction. Downy mildew, another fungal disease in American grapevines, unfortunately probably migrated to Europe on some of the rootstocks imported for grafting.

    One tragic consequence of the Phylloxera devastation is that many of the native species indigenous to Europe, since they were of negligible commercial value, were not perpetuated by grafting and became extinct. There was some debate generated by this replanting that the quality declined in "post-phylloxera" wines. Whether this was indeed the case and whether this was due to the rootstocks themselves or to the relatively sudden and nearly universal youth of the vines, or to changes in vinification techniques, or to some other concurrent factor or variable, is unknown.

    Undoubtedly, it will remain a matter of theory and opinion and provide animated conversation at wine tastings, but ultimately never be proven. European consumer demand was unabated, especially in France, yet the vineyard blights resulted in shortages of wine for many years.

    French producers turned their focus to the French North African colonies of Morocco, Tunisia, and particularly Algeria. Fraud and adulteration became problems. In a short period of just over a decade, Algeria grew into the World's largest wine exporter, taking over the position of France.

    AC became the model for all wine producing countries to both protect reputations and markets for the wine trade and authenticate product origins for consumers. Northern California wine harvest, c. Around the turn of the century, the quality of American wines had reached excellence by international standards, as testified to by the three dozen medals won by them at the Paris Exposition.

    Photo courtesy of Fleet Irvine Photomurals During the period when the Europeans were contending with phylloxera, the American wine industry was ironically flourishing.

    ByAmerica had a fully developed and proud commercial wine producing business. While it took a hundred years instead of 20 to complete its course, the results were even more devastating. It didn't spread from vineyard to vineyard, but from town to county to state to the entire nation. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism and their related problems were much more widespread and affected a radically larger share of America's population in the early and mids than they do at present day.

    Excessive use, rather than moderate use, was the norm in an era of fewer entertainments and diversions.
    Terroir A Cahors chateau and vineyard The concept of Terroir, which refers to the unique combination of natural factors associated with any particular vineyardis important to French vignerons. As a minimum, labels will usually state that classification, as well as the name of the producer, and, for wines above the Vin De Table level, will also include the geographical area where the wine was made.

    Sometimes that will simply be the wider region where the wine was made, but some labels, especially for higher quality wines, will also include details of the individual village or commune, and even the specific vineyard where the wine was sourced. With the exception of wines from the Alsace regionFrance had no tradition of labelling wines with details of the grape varieties used.

    Since New World wines made the names of individual grape varieties familiar to international consumers in the late 20th century, more French wineries started to use varietal labelling. In general, varietal labelling is most common for the Vin de Pays category, although some AOC wines now also display varietal names.

    For most AOC wines, if grape varieties are mentioned, they will be in small print on a back label. Labels will also indicate where the wine was bottled, which can be an indication as to the quality level of the wine, and whether it was bottled by a single producer, or more anonymously and in larger quantities: This may be the producing vineyard or it may not.

    If a chateau or domaine is named, it may well not exist as a real vineyard, and the wine may be an assemblage from the grapes or the wines of several producers. Bottles from these independent makers carry a special logo usually printed on the foil cap covering the cork. If varietal names are displayed, common EU rules apply: If two or more varietal names are used, only the displayed varieties are allowed.

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    If two or more varietal names are used, they must generally appear in descending order. Every appellation in France is defined by INAO, in regards to the individual regions particular wine "character".

    Elegant Chateau for sale near Bordeaux - interview with Michael Baynes - Maxwell-Baynes: 1592163

    With the number of appellations in France too numerous to mention here, they are easily defined into one of the main wine producing regions listed below: It is situated in eastern France on the river Ill and borders Germany, a country with which it shares many grape varieties as well as a long tradition of varietal labelling. The Beaujolais region is also notorious for the Beaujolais Nouveaua popular vin de primeur which is released annually on the third Thursday of November.

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    Bordeaux[ edit ] Bordeaux is a large region on the Atlantic coast, which has a long history of exporting its wines overseas. The red wines produced are usually blended, from Cabernet SauvignonMerlot and sometimes Cabernet Franc.

    Brittany[ edit ] Brittany is not an official wine region any more. Yet it has a rich history related to grapegrowing and winemaking and has recently been demonstrating a revival of its viticulture.

    Bordeaux dating site (WINE Wine History)

    Several small recreational vineyards were established in the last two decades e. Burgundy[ edit ] Wine from Nuits-Saint-Georges Burgundy or Bourgogne in eastern France is a region where red and white wines are equally important. Probably more terroir-conscious than any other region, Burgundy is divided into the largest number of appellations of any French region. The Burgundy region is divided in four main parts: There are two main grape varieties used in Burgundy — Chardonnay for white wines, and Pinot noir for red.

    Gustave Henri Laly, a renowned wine producer from Burgundy, supplied the French General Assembly with his Montrachet produced at Mont Dardon around the turn of the 20th century. Champagne[ edit ] Champagnesituated in eastern France, close to Belgium and Luxembourgis the coldest of France's major wine regions and home to its major sparkling wine. Corsica[ edit ] Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean the wines of which are primarily consumed on the island itself.

    It has nine AOC regions and an island-wide vin de pays designation and is still developing its production methods as well as its regional style. Jura[ edit ] Juraa small region in the mountains close to Switzerland where some unique wine styles, notably Vin Jaune and Vin de Paille, are produced. The region covers six appellations and is related to Burgundy through its extensive use of the Burgundian grapes Chardonnay and Pinot noir, though other varieties are used.

    Bordeaux dating site (WINE Wine History)

    It also shares cool climate with Burgundy. So-called " wine lake ", Languedoc-Roussillon is also the home of some innovative producers who combine traditional French wine like blanquette de Limouxthe world's oldest sparkling wine, and international styles while using lessons from the New World.

    Loire[ edit ] Loire valley is a primarily white-wine region that stretches over a long distance along the Loire River in central and western France, and where grape varieties and wine styles vary along the river. Four sub-regions are situated along the river: Normandy[ edit ] Normandy is not an official wine region any more. Several small recreational vineyards were established in the last two decades and at least one operates on a commercial scale in Grisy near Caen.

    Picardy[ edit ] Picardy is not an official wine region any more. Provence[ edit ] Provencein the south-east and close to the Mediterranean. It covers eight major appellations led by the Provence flagship, Bandol. Savoy[ edit ] Savoy or Savoie, primarily a white-wine region in the Alps close to Switzerland, where many grapes unique to this region are cultivated.

    Some areas produce primarily red wines in a style reminiscent of red Bordeaux, while other produce dry or sweet white wines. Areas within Sud-Ouest include among other: Bergerac and other areas of upstream Dordogne .

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